This is a growing, but incomplete list of much of the research done to date on DNA damage from Fluoroquinolones. This list is long and unwieldy, however, we leave the studies here in order to satisfy those who want links to the actual research done on these Fluoroquinolone drugs and the info from which we’ve sourced many of our blog posts, including the posts entitled:
DNA DAMAGE FROM FLUOROQUINOLONES UPON EXPOSURE TO SUNLIGHT
Phototoxicity is a common, but little talked about side effect of the Fluoroquinolone class of antibiotics. Several of these drugs have been pulled from the market because of phototoxicity. It’s a distinct possibility that exposing yourself to the sunlight while taking these drugs can contribute to a higher risk of skin cancer and, according to one study, these drugs are considered ‘a new class of photochemical carcinogens’. See the post on Increased Skin Cancer Risk from the Fluoroquinolone Antibiotics for more details.
- The photomutagenicity of fluoroquinolones in tests for gene mutation, chromosomal aberration, gene conversion and DNA breakage
- Quinolone antibacterials: a new class of photochemical carcinogens
- Fluoroquinolone Antimicrobials: Singlet Oxygen, Superoxide and Phototoxicity
- Damage to mitochondria of cultured human skin fibroblasts photosensitized by fluoroquinolones
IMMUNE SYSTEM PROBLEMS FROM FLUOROQUINOLONE INDUCED DNA DAMAGE
- Several gene programs are induced in ciprofloxacin-treated human lymphocytes as revealed by microarray analysis
- “Fluoroquinolones, which perform their bactericidal effect by inhibiting DNA gyrase (a type II topoisomerase), are known to interfere with certain immune functions. Ciprofloxacin and other quinolones at >20 µg/ml inhibit peripheral blood lymphocyte (PBL) cell growth by 30 to 35%, causing impaired cell cycle progression through the S phase. Cell cycle analysis thus indicates DNA synthesis to be inhibited by fluoroquinolones at these concentrations.” Ciprofloxacin induces an immunomodulatory stress response in human Lymphocytes
LIVER TOXICITY FROM FLUOROQUINOLONE INDUCED DNA DAMAGE
- Mechanistic Study on Flumequine Hepatocarcinogenicity focusing on DNA Damage in Mice
- Troglitazone and liver injury. A search for Answers
- Ciprofloxacin Cardiotoxicity and Hepatotoxicity in Humans and Animals– Also discusses Mitochondrial damage from the DNA damage.
GENERAL DNA DAMAGE FROM THE FLUOROQUINOLONES
- Ciprofloxacin-induced DNA damage in primary culture of rat astrocytes and protection by Vitamin E. Please note the ‘protection by Vitamin E’ part of the study. It’s likely that there is a component of Vitamin E nutritional deficiency in those who become damaged or injured from the Fluoroquinolone antibiotics.
- “Although the quinolone is highly toxic to mammalian cells in culture, its mechanism of cytotoxic action is not known. “ toxicity of quinolones towards eukaryotic cells While this study was done on yeast, it was done to find out what mechanisms cause toxicity and DNA damage in humans. In other words, it acknowledges the toxicity caused by these drugs in humans and sought to find out why it occurs.
- “Fluoroquinolones are potent inhibitors of bacterial topoisomerase II (DNA gyrase). They can also inhibit eukaryotic topoisomerases, which could possibly lead to clastogenicity and/or cellular toxicity. Recent studies have demonstrated a correlation between mammalian cell cytotoxicity of the fluoroquinolones and the potential of these compounds to induce micronuclei, a genetic toxicity endpoint. ” Fluoroquinolones: relationships between structural variations, mammalian cell cytotoxicity, and antimicrobial activity.
- “Other enzymes involved in DNA replication are somewhat inhibited by nalidixic acid analogs. Nalidixic acid and 4- quinolones have been shown to alter the chain length distribution of replication products synthesized by eucaryotic DNA polymerase…” Inhibitory Effects of Quinolone Antibacterial Agents on Eucaryotic Topoisomerases and Related Test Systems
- “We have found that: norfloxacin and nalidixic acid are capable of unwinding the double helix, thus confirming the binding of these antibiotics to DNA” Studies on the interaction of 4-quinolones with DNA by DNA unwinding experiments
- Electrochemical characteristics of five quinolone drugs and their effect on DNA damage and repair in Escherichia coli
MITOCHONDRIAL DNA DAMAGE FROM FLUOROQUINOLONES
See the post on Mitochondrial Damage from Your Antibiotics, A Cause of Chronic Fatigue, for more information on Mitochondrial toxicity and the Fluoroquinolone class of antibiotics.
- “Quinolones are a class of antibiotics that induce damage to and loss of DNA from bacteria. The structural organization of bacterial DNA is more similar to eukaryotic mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) than to eukaryotic chromosomal or nuclear DNA (nDNA). Antibiotics affecting the bacterial genome may therefore preferentially damage mtDNA rather than nDNA” Damage to mitochondrial DNA induced by the quinolone Bay y 3118 in embryonic turkey liver.
- Delayed cytotoxicity and cleavage of mitochondrial DNA in ciprofloxacin-treated mammalian cells– it’s important to note that the study found ‘delayed’ cytotoxicity, as delayed reactions are what many who are damaged by the Fluoroquinolones experience.